Giwa Local Government
History: Local Government was created on September, 15,1991
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW GIWA
Sabuwar Gari Giwa (New Giwa) came into existence as Giwa in about 1944, following the advice made by the two colonial agents and the prevalent of numerous problems particularly diseases in the old Giwa. Sabuwar Gari Giwa located near the Angwar Shehu’s Village was vast flat Savannah grassland, with light forest which needed to be cleared for developmental purposes.
The first step taken by the people for relocation was the clearing of the area; plots were allocated to individual families to build their houses. Plots of lands were allocated for the development of the residence of the district head and his office. Lands were also allocated for the establishment of prison, Juma’at Mosque and the residence of the Danfangi. In addition, the office of the Alkali (judge) of Giwa was also allocated. The house of the Imam of Giwa, Imam Habibu was also allocated a plot of Land.
Due to the problems faced by Old Giwa in terms of access road, one major task undertaken by the people was the creation of roads. Both motor able and feeder roads were created, wide enough to ease transportation of men, materials and farm produce. Plots of lands were allocated in such a way to allow for the development of spacious compounds and fence, to prevent congestion which was the characteristics of the Old Giwa, one major factor that contributed to the easy spread of diseases
It should be noted that lands were allocated to individual family according to: first the largeness of family and secondly according to the financial capability of individual family. To this end, contributions were made from the Colonial administration through the committee established to oversee the migration and settlement of the people, and mostly from the Zaria Emirate Council. Spirited individuals from the people resident in Zaria also contributed to the development and resettlement of the people in Sabuwar Gari Giwa (New Giwa Town).
Market, which had eluded old Giwa, was also established to encourage trading activities in the new establishment. Access road to the market was created from the residence of the district head, the Danfangi and Alhaji Gambo Zanya (Sarkin Ladanci) the first Sarkin Kasuwa of the new market²⁸. The new market was established between the years 1946-1947, which have two sittings in a week – Thursdays and Saturdays²⁹.
Another important problem which the Old Giwa faced to which the Colonial administration and the leadership of the Old Giwa set out to solve in the new Giwa was the shortage of drinkable water. The colonial authority therefore encouraged the development of wells around the district. Sixteen wells were dug at the initial, and later increased to twenty. These wells were constructed with concrete slaps around the mouth of the well to avoid collapse and for little children not to accidentally fell into it³⁰. This development greatly reduced acute shortage of water supply.
And at the same time brought relief to most water borne diseases earlier experienced by the people in the Old Giwa
As earlier noted, the distance of old Giwa further away from the major road-Sokoto-Zaria road had prevented the establishment of heath care medical centres in Old Giwa. The relocation of the people to new Giwa availed the authorities the opportunity to establish health centres for the treatment of diseases like Leprosy, River Blindness, Sleeping Sickness and Guinea Worm. The first dispensary for these purposes was established in Yelwa and in Giwa in 1947 Before now, there were only two dispensaries in Shika and Kaya, which had hardy, served the Old Giwa due to impassable road during the raining season and distance. Old Giwa was about 16¹/² miles (26 Kilometer) to Kaya.. Between 1947 and 1949, other treatment centres were established in Bomo, Bajimi, Tsibiri, Angwar Shehu, Fatika, Kidandan and Iyatawa
THE GEOGRAPHY AND LOCATION OF NEW GIWA
The migration of the inhabitant of the Old Giwa started in 1944 as the committee set up to actualize this submitted their reports. The new Giwa is a nucleated settlement, established along the Sokoto–Zaria road. The new settlement is situated 21 miles (34 kilometers) from Zaria.New Giwa lies to the West of Zaria, and at its nearest point in only about five miles (Eight kilometers) from Zaria. It is a large district more or less square in shape, with a prolongation southwards in the South Western corner. In the West and North, it is bounded by Katsina Emirate, to the East by Zaria and to the South by Zangon– Aya district
Giwa is situated on latitude 9 ̊ 36 North and 07 ̊ 28 East, along the Sokoto–Zara–Kaduna road. It is situated on the Southern Margin of Northern Plateau and it occupies a fairly central position between Zaria and Kaduna, the capital of the then Northern Nigeria Region. Giwa lies within traditional emirate of Zaria before and up to the coming of the British. The area is of an undulating character, and very flat apart from these undulations. There are numerous streams, most of which flow north and South. The Rafin Tabo, a large stream in the Western part flows from Old Giwa, into which most of the rivers in the Western part run. It flows practically due South
Giwa experiences a typical tropical continental climate with seasonal regimes oscillating between cool to hot dry and humid to wet. These seasons reflects the influence of tropical continental and equatorial maritime air masses. The cool and hot dry season is longer than the rainy season. The special and temporal distribution of the rain ranges from 1005 to 1012mm at the peak of the raining season which is usually the conventional rainfall type.
The dry season usually from October to February every year, the yearly atmospheric temperature of Giwa ranges from 39 ̊c to 41c̊ during the raining season and 27c̊ to 32c̊ during the Hamattan period; however during the evenings and nights, temperature may drop as low as 25c̊. At this period, humidity is usually low (30%). The Hamattan increase in the rate of evaporation results to the “cooling effects”, but it usually bring with it dusty wind that stirs up a thick dusty haze and impedes visibility
Giwa district lies in the Savanna type vegetation which is typified by tall
grass and short scattered trees, a product of a tropical wet-dry climate, transitional between that of the hot desert and the tropical forest. Trees and plants are deciduous in nature, shedding their leaves in the cool dry season to prevent excessive loss of water through transpiration
The soil is typical red-brown to red-yellow typical ferruginous soils, with woody shrubs. The soil is usually rich in red clay and sand but poor in organic matter. However, soils within the “Fadama” areas are richer in Kalintic clay and organic matters, very heavy and poor drained characteristics of vertical Fringes forest in some localities, especially the Southern border with Zangon-Aya.
The typical red-brown to red-yellow tropical ferruginous soil also known as Jarkasa supports the cultivation of the much needed cash crops like groundnuts, cotton and tobacco, for sales to the Colonial administration. In addition, the Jarkasa soils also allow for the cultivation of food crops like the guinea coin Maize, and Yams
The Fadama or the low land soil, usually in the lower region of Giwa is fairly watered, usually along the river banks. This encourages irrigation in the district. These Fadama areas are found in Fatika, Kakangi, Kidandan and the South-eastern Giwa. With its high fertility rate, the Fadama holds more moisture than the Jarkasa and therefore supports the cultivation of sugarcane, rice, cassava and vegetables.
Local Government was created on September, 15,1991
The local Government is administered by the following officers:-
- Director of Personnel Management
- Head of Administration
- Staff Officer
- Head of Health
- Head of Works
- Head of Agriculture
- Educational Secretary
Farming is a major occupation of the people of the L.G. Cash crop like cotton, beans, sugarcane, tobacco, peppers are some of the cash crops. The food crops are maize, millet, guinea corn, rice, etc.
Art and Culture
The Local Government has three major festivals namely Id-elfitir,Id-elKabir and Id-el-Maulid.
The people of this local Government Area are actively engaged in the following: dyeing, mat making, weaving, poultry, leather works, black smiting and farming.
The farmers who are predominant produce items such as, yam, cassava, beans, maize,
There are over eighty one(81) primary schools and some nursery schools in the Sharia.
The secondary Schools figure stands at about seven(7) while there is one school of Arabic Studies at Karau-Karau. The names of the Colleges are below:
- GGS School,Giwa
- GDSS Kay
- GDSS Yakawada
- GDSS Shika
- GDSS Fatika
- School of Arabic Studies, Karau Karau
- Mallam Abdulkari Islamic Science School Giwa
The Local Government has two Community Banks located at the following places;-
- Giwa Community Bank
- Shika Community Bank
Financial Resources of the local government
The main financial resources of the Local Government is from the statutory grant and revenue generated from the Local Government market which were located at the following places;- Giwa, shika ,Galadimawa, and Gangara.
Giwa Local Government is bounded in the north by Funtua, in the West by Birnin Gwari, Igabi, and Faskari,in the east by Danja and Makarfi and in the South by Sabon Gari and Zaria Local Governments.
NEPA,NIPOST,NPF,NDE,NPS,CUSTOM AND IMMIGRATION
A General Hospital Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Yakawada Private Clinics and over 20 dispensaries are located in the Areas within the Local
The Local Government has the soap Factory at Shika and Sintu Poultry at Shika.
Justice is administered in the Local Government,e.g Giwa Area through the courts which could be found in the Local Government Area, e.g Giwa and Fatika Sharia court.
The People of Giwa Local Government are the Hausas and Fulanis.
292,384 People (2006 Census)
The Postal Address the local Government is PMB 101 ,Giwa
Problem of the Local Government Area
The following are some of the Local Government‘s problem
- Lack of electricity
- Bad roads
- Water scarcity
- Lack of fertilizers in the Government store
Mosques are located in all the towns and villages of the local Government and few churches
The Local Government has a tarred road (i.e Zaria ,Sokoto, road and Yakawada Sabuwa, and Gwargwaje-Dogondawa roads.
The Local Government has A.B.U Teaching Hospital at Yakawada and National Animal Production Research Institute at Shika.
The Local Government has three (3) districts headed by the following persons;
- Giwa District
- Fatika District
- Kidan dan
- Shika District
There are about 30 village heads within the local government.
TOWN AND VILLAGE
The local Government has few towns and many villages. These are;- Giwa Shik, Yakawad, Mararaban Guga,Gangara, Kidan-Kidan, Biya,etc
The Local Government problems of water depends mainly on well and streams water.